HPX - High Performance ParalleX

Loading Components
Application Specific Component Example

HPX relies on loading application specific components during the runtime of an application. Moreover, HPX comes with a set of preinstalled components supporting basic functionalities useful for almost every application. Any component in HPX is loaded from a shared library, where any of the shared libraries can contain more than one component type. During startup, HPX tries to locate all available components (e.g. their corresponding shared libraries) and creates an internal component registry for later use. This section describes the algorithm used by HPX to locate all relevant shared libraries on a system. As described, this algorithm is customizable by the configuration properties loaded from the ini files (see section Loading INI Files).

Loading components is a two stage process. First HPX tries to locate all component shared libraries, loads those, and generates default configuration section in the internal configuration database for each component found. For each found component the following information is generated:

name = <name_of_shared_library>
path = $[component_path]
enabled = $[hpx.components.load_external]
default = 1

The values in this section correspond to the expected configuration information for a component as described in the section Built-in Default Configuration Settings.

In order to locate component shared libraries, HPX will try loading all shared libraries (files with the platform specific extension of a shared library, Linux: *.so, Windows: *.dll, MacOS: *.dylib) found in the directory referenced by the ini property hpx.component_path.

This first step corresponds to step 1) during the process of filling the internal configuration database with default information as described in section Loading INI Files.

After all of the configuration information has been loaded, HPX performs the second step in terms of loading components. During this step, HPX scans all existing configuration sections [hpx.component.<some_component_instance_name>] and instantiates a special factory object for each of the successfully located and loaded components. During the application's life time, these factory objects will be responsible to create new and discard old instances of the component they are associated with. This step is performed after step 11) of the process of filling the internal configuration database with default information as described in section Loading INI Files.

In this section we assume to have a simple application component which exposes one member function as a component action. The header file app_server.hpp declares the C++ type to be exposed as a component. This type has a member function print_greating() which is exposed as an action (print_greating_action). We assume the source files for this example are located in a directory referenced by $APP_ROOT:

// file: $APP_ROOT/app_server.hpp
#include <hpx/hpx.hpp>
#include <hpx/include/iostreams.hpp>

namespace app
    // Define a simple component exposing one action 'print_greating'
    class HPX_COMPONENT_EXPORT server
      : public hpx::components::simple_component_base<server>
        void print_greating ()
            hpx::cout << "Hey, how are you?\n" << hpx::flush;

        // Component actions need to be declared, this also defines the
        // type 'print_greating_action' representing the action.
        HPX_DEFINE_COMPONENT_ACTION(server, print_greating, print_greating_action);

// Declare boilerplate code required for each of the component actions.

The corresponding source file contains mainly macro invocations which define boilerplate code needed for HPX to function properly:

// file: $APP_ROOT/app_server.cpp
#include "app_server.hpp"

// Define boilerplate required once per component module.

// Define factory object associated with our component of type 'app::server'.
HPX_REGISTER_COMPONENT(app::server, app_server);

// Define boilerplate code required for each of the component actions. Use the
// same argument as used for HPX_REGISTER_ACTION_DECLARATION above.

The following gives an example of how the component can be used. We create one instance of the app::server component on the current locality and invoke the exposed action print_greating_action using the global id of the newly created instance. Note, that no special code is required to delete the component instance after it is not needed anymore. It will be deleted automatically when its last reference goes out of scope, here at the closing brace of the block surrounding the code.

// file: $APP_ROOT/use_app_server_example.cpp
#include <hpx/hpx_init.hpp>
#include "app_server.hpp"

int hpx_main()
        // Create an instance of the app_server component on the current locality.
        hpx::naming:id_type app_server_instance =

        // Create an instance of the action 'print_greating_action'.
        app::server::print_greating_action print_greating;

        // Invoke the action 'print_greating' on the newly created component.
    return hpx::finalize();

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
    return hpx::init(argc, argv);

In order to make sure that the application will be able to use the component app::server, special configuration information must be passed to HPX. The simples way to allow HPX to 'find' the component is to provide special ini configuration files, which add the necessary information to the internal configuration database. The component should have a special ini file containing the information specific to the component app_server:

# file: $APP_ROOT/app_server.ini
name = app_server

Here $APP_LOCATION is the directory where the (binary) component shared library is located. HPX will attempt to load the shared library from there. The section name hpx.components.app_server reflects the instance name of the component (app_server is an arbitrary, but unique name) . The property value for hpx.components.app_server.name should be the same as used for the second argument to the macro HPX_REGISTER_COMPONENT above.

Additionally a file .hpx.ini which could be located in the current working directory (see step 3 as described in the section Loading INI Files) can be used to add to the ini search path for components:

# file: $PWD/.hpx.ini
ini_path = $[hpx.ini_path]:$APP_ROOT/

This assumes that the above ini file specific to the component is located in the directory $APP_ROOT.

[Note] Note

It is possible to reference the defined property from inside its value. HPX will gracefully use the previous value of hpx.ini_path for the reference on the right hand side and assign the overall (now expanded) value to the property.